What is the difference between Kipura and Capoeira? We must pry open the hidden places of world history to honestly answer this question. Starting with the fact that Montu is the source of all fighting systems the world over.
In order to further examine the true history of Kipura and "Capoeira", we must begin with the Afrikan Moors arrival in the Iberian Peninsula ,responding to the pleas of help from the King of Spain.
The King of Spain had no hope of victory against the ruthless Goth King Roderic I. Tariq ibn Ziyad [ I have been unable to unearth his Afrikan name ] led his highly educated, fierce warriors of the LAMTUNA and Gudala [ nomadic ethnic groups of so-called MAURITANIA in Afrika ] whom the Arabs called ALMORAVIDS to the aid of the King of Spain.
Tariq ibn Ziyad absolutely thrashed King Roderic, completely outwitting and dominatingly outfighting Roderic at every turn. In the decisive battle, Tariq ibn Ziyad performed a feat even superior to the Greek 300 when he...using only 200 soldiers...completely outwitted the massive surging army of Roderic and reigned complete destruction upon them. When the battle was over, Roderic and almost all of his army lay slaughtered, whereas Tariq and most of his men were largely unscathed.
Thus did the first dynasty of the Almoravids begin in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus did the light of civilization of the Iberian Peninsula and the greatest, most refined, most educated civilization of early Europe until the mid 1400's, the all-Afrikan achievement of...Al-Andalus ...come to be.The Spaniards and later the Portuguese referred to the Almoravids and all Blacks as Moors or Berbers. For an excellent, objective, accurate scientific treatment of this matter, please read the following of works collected into a tome by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima:
Why is the saga of the Almoravids and Almohades so vital to this discussion? Because the Almoravids especially maintained iron fisted control over the extremely lucrative Saharan gold and valuables trade, and as such they had every occasion to interact with...and feud with...their Afrikan brethren of the interior of Afrika from whence the Moors themselves sprang. They adopted and adapted the war skills they were exposed to, including the battle skills of the KINGDOM OF KONGO as transmitted by the Moorish and Kongo warriors and traders working and trading along the network of traders to North Afrika.
The most famous war arts of the Kingdom of Kongo are ancient Kipura/Kipula...the fighting art that the Portuguese miscalled "capoeira"...and modern LIBANDA. KIPURA/KIPULA MEANS TO STRUGGLE, TO FLIT FROM PLACE TO PLACE, TO SPIN, FLY UP AND DOWN AND LOW TO THE GROUND, and are indicative of the rooster fighting techniques.
Kipura existed before Brazil was "discovered" in 1500. Both Kipura and its more modern offshoot LIBANDA...in their modern recreational noncombative form... are virtually indistinguishable from modern Cardio Capoeira.
Yannick Nsalambo...expert in Libanda and "capoeira".. adamantly states and defends the Kongo origins of "capoeira" here:
We have established that the collective Afrikan fighting arts are the source of all human fighting methods; and that the Almoravids and Almohads transmitted elements of Kipura to the Iberian Peninsula as conquerors and literal educating civilizers of the Iberian Peninsula.
Now let us move on the specific meanings, ethnic groups, and fighting systems comprising Kipura and "capoeira". Here is where things get dicey...but I shall clarify all of these consternations for you.
PORTUGUESE SLAVERY IN CONTINENTAL AFRIKA
The Portuguese established a base on the ISLAND OF REUNION, one of several islands located off the coast of Afrika, in the Indian Ocean. Reunion is considered to be a part of the continent of Afrika. The Portuguese promptly enslaved numerous nonaggressing Afrikans...and just as promptly found themselves being knocked about by the weapon and hand to hand skills of the Afrikans. The hand to hand skills were the "Reunion" version of Moraingy, the popular Afrikan Montu precursor to Muay Boran. These skills...practiced by men AND women...combined kickboxing:
THE DEADLY WOMEN WARRIORS OF MORAINGY
fist punches and other fist and open hand blows, inclusive of slaps ,finger jabs to sensitive targets and chops
Wrestling is a mandatory part of every Afrikan fighting style, including Moraingy and the art the Portuguese incorrectly named "Capoeira".
And acrobatic maneuvers that many Brazilians...especially nonBlack Brazilians...claim is exclusively done by "capoeira in Brazil".
The stark similarity to the Afrikan art miscalled "capoeira" is apparent in many different arts in many different areas of many different countries throughout Afrika. Most especially and most signally, literally every area that transported slaves and slave warriors from Afrika to Europe Asia and the Americas.
Now that you have the above information...the entirety of the arsenal and more of what is now called "capoeira" is echoed in many of the indigenous fighting skills of many different groups in many different areas of Afrika, each with their own distinctive flavor of and variation of a largely common set of skills...we can FINALLY move on to specifying the difference between KIPURA and CAPOEIRA.
The difference between Kipura and "Capoeira" is that Kipura specifically refers to the Kikongo war arts and the word from which "Capoeira" sprang. "Capoeira" is the Portuguese MISPRONOUNCIATION MISUNDERSTANDING AND MISAPPLICATION OF AFRIKAN "KIPURA". White colonial Brazilians used "Capoeira" as a term referring to any and every indigenous fighting form used by Afrikans.
How and why did the Portuguese settle on the word "Capoeira" as their attempt to pronounce "Kipura" and why is it significant? The Portuguese army and many of the White Brazilians became aware that Afrikan warriors expert in Kipura [ which they mispronounced as "capoeira" ] wiped out every single one of Portuguese soldiers in the largest Portuguese army ever fielded in THE BATTLE OF KITOMBO . The defeat was so devastating that the Portuguese agreed to terms stating they never attempt to enslave Kongo again. The ramifications of that defeat drastically heightened the fear of aFrikan resistance and Afrikan fighting styles already running rampant in all colonial slavery quarters.
BRAZILIAN SLAVERS IMPORTED AFRICANS WITH LABELS FROM "predominantly Angola, Congo, Yoruba, Ashanti, Rebolo, Anjico, Gabon, and Mozambique." according to Miedo Nishida. These areas are merely SOME of the places from which Afrikans were brought to Brazil [ as Mr. Nishida himself rigorously confirms and documents ]. Immediately and obviously, since all of these areas were also known for Afrikan warriors states and kingdoms forcibly resisting European and Arabic incursion for centuries, we know beyond question that when these warriors were captured and enslaved? These warriors brought their fighting methods to whatever slave colony they were forced to populate. Including Brazil.
Initially, Portuguese living in/fighting in Afrika DID NOT call EVERY fighting skill of EVERY Afrikan by the term "capoeira". But eventually the term became so generalized that they, too, made the same mistake.
A famous example of this ignorant generalization is the case of the brilliant and completely unyielding Quobah, Quobah famously slew two attacking lions with his sword [ in front of European witnesses, who recorded the event ], dashed his brutal "slavemaster's" brains to the ground with a single blow of a club, and led numerous Afrikan ex-slaves to freedom in the Brazilian hinterland, This event is narrated in this book:
Finally, the various original ethnic Afrikan fighting styles...already adapted to deal with the challenges of the life of a slave outside of Afrika...went through a third and fourth change: combining the previously independent Afrikan fighting systems into a single combined hybridized whole. And the fourth is the adaption to defeat nonAfrikan fighting systems of their enemies, and the adopting of nonAFrikan fighting techniques. While the former largely obviated the need for the latter...as adapting to defeat the techniques of the enemy also includes refining and innovating techniques from our Afrikan matrix to defeat our enemies skills tactics and techniques...there were techniques taken from other fighting systems. And that's okay, because not only is it SMART to do so, it's also basically a return to the font and source of the creation of these other fighting systems.
Since all fighting systems are Afrikan at the source,, the people using the other fighting system were innovating on an Afrikan root, so we would simply be returning the favor if we did the same. Lol.
This change in technique and knowledge stayed primarily among Afrikans in the Diaspora, as dissemination of this knowledge among Whites in any way would both lead to more successful countermeasures being employed by the slaver against practitioners AND the death of the person or people creating and teaching this knowledge. Afrikans shrewdly noted and never forgot the havoc that enemies like the extremely racist Brazilian MAJOR VIDIGAL was able to wreak, once he forced a "capoeirista" to teach him the art.
All of the arts which are Montu cousins of "capoeira" and are essentially the same art like Ladja/Danmye in Martinique,
The word "capoeira" is simultaneously:
1. The mispronounciation of the Afrikan term KIPURA. Kipura derives from the Kingdom of Kongo and refers to the fighting style of many of the warriors in and around Kongo prior to, during, and after the rise and fall of the Kingdom of Kongo.
2. The incorrect, improper, ignorant and racist general reference that the Portuguese slavers used to refer to ALL Continental Afrikan fighting styles, no matter what these styles were. Even if they weren't Kipura.
3. A reference to the hybrid fighting of style of Afrikan warriors in the Americas, or the Afrikan warriors themselves who were legendarily practicing a unique coalescing of fighting styles and application of fighting styles developing and applied in all the Americas, not just Brasil. But due to the politics of the Estado Novo of Getulio Vargas, the government sponsored mass miseducation of lies regarding the art of our Afrikan ancestors and ourselves as Afrikans in the Diaspora is commonly improperly and ignorantly believed to be the sole creation of and sole cultural property of not just African descendants in Brasil but ALL Brasilians. White and Asian Brasilians, etc. None of this is remotely accurate and true, insofar as the record of history invincibly and completely repudiates such a brazenly false and stupid lie.
A more appropriate word for the commingling of multiple Afrikan arts and the collective Afrikan arts on the continent of Afrika and the Diaspora would be MONTU, as "capoeira" ACTUALLY refers to an admixture of specifically known Afrikan fighting methods.
One of the acceptable names for the collective Afrikan fighting methods is...MONTU..."